By Roy Upton; et al

Content material: advent to Botanical Microscopy Pharmacognosy: From Dioscorides to fashionable natural medicinal drugs what is in a reputation? Nomenclature of Botanical fabrics To Be or to not Be? a spotlight on Botanical Adulteration Microscopy for identity of Botanical uncooked fabrics: makes use of and obstacles developing a Microscopy Lab significant Plant teams constructions of the first Plant physique and easy Plant Anatomy Diagnostic features of Tissues association of Tissues in Medicinal Plant elements practise of Samples for Microscopic research Botanical Microscopy Atlas Achillea millefolium L. Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., Aconitum kusnezoffi Reicher Actaea racemosa L. syn. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt Aesculus hippocastanum L. Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz Aletris farinosa L. Allium sativum L. Angelica archangelica L. Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Arctium lappa L. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng Aristolochia fangchi Y. C. Wu ex L. D. Chou & S. M. Hwang Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom Arnica montana L. Astragalus mongholicus Bunge syn. A. membranaceus Bunge, A. membranaceus Bunge var. mongholicus(Bunge) P. ok. Hsiao Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz Atropa belladonna L. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell syn. Bacopa monnieria (L.) Wettstein Bupleurum spp Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx Centella asiatica (L.) Urb Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.)Rich. and Cephaelis acuminata Karsten Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. grey Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton Cinchona succirubra Pav. ex Klotzsch (syn. C. pubescens Vahl) Clematis armandii Franch Clematis chinensis Retz Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., Codonopsis tangshen Oliv Cola nitida (Vent.) A. Chev Coptis chinensis Franch., Coptis deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao, Coptis teeta Wall Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC Hawthorn Fruit Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC Hawthorn Leaf and Flower Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Hawthorn Fruit Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Hawthorn Leaf and Flower Curcuma longa L. Datura stramonium L. Digitalis lanata Ehrh Digitalis purpurea L. Echinacea angustifolia DC Echinacea atrorubens Nutt Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Aerial components Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Root and Rhizome Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Seed Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim Ephedra sinica Stapf, Ephedra equisetina Bunge, E. intermedia Epimedium spp Equisetum arvense L. Eupatorium fistulosum Barratt syn. E. purpureum L. Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Frangula alnus Mill. syn. Rhamnus frangulaL. Frangula purshiana (DC.) J. G. Cooper syn. Rhamnus purshianaDC Ganoderma lucidum P. Karst Ginkgo biloba L. Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC., Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Grifola frondosa (Dicks: Fr.) S.F. grey Hamamelis virginiana L. Hedysarum polybotris Hand.-Mazz Humulus lupulus L. Hydrastis canadensis L. Leaf Hydrastis canadensis L. Rhizome and Root Hypericum perforatum L. Illicium anisatum L. Illicium verum J. D. Hook Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Moc. ex DC.) Coville Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Singer syn. Lentinus edodes (Berk) Singer Levisticum officinale W. Koch Ligusticum porteri J. M. Coult.& Rose Ligustrum lucidum W. T. Aiton Lycium chinense Mill.,L. barbarum L. Mahonia nervosa (Pursh.) Nutt Matricaria recutita L. Melissa officinalis L. Mentha A - piperitaL. Mentha pulegium L. Mitchella repens L. Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq Panax ginsengC. A. Mey. Root (unprocessed) Panax ginsengC. A. Mey. Root (processed) Panax pseudo ginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen ex C. Chow & W. G. Huang Panax quinquefolius L. Parthenium integrifolium L. Passiflora incarnata L. Paullinia cupana Kunth Pausinystalia johimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille Periploca sepium Bunge Petasites frigidus (L.) Frigs Phyllanthus emblica L Piper methysticum G.Forst Plantago lanceolata L. Plantago significant L. Polygonum multiflorum Thunb Prunus africanum (Hook f.) Kalkman (syn. Pygeum africanum Hook. f.) Prunus serotina Ehrh Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth . ex Kurz Rheum spp. (Rheum officinale Baillon, Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.) Rhodiola rosea L. Rumex crispus L. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. Root syn. Aucklandia costus Falc.; Aucklandia lappa Decne.; Saussurea lappa Decne. C. B. Clarke Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill Schisandra sphenanthera Rehder & E. H. Wilson Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Scutellaria lateriflora L. Senna alexandrina Mill. (syn. Cassia senna, C. angustifolia, C. acutifolia) Senna alexandrina Mill Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small Serratula spp Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn Stephania tetrandra S. Moore Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni Symphytum officinale L. Leaf Symphytum officinale L. Root Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. Leaf Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. Root Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb Terminalia chebula Retz Teucrium chamaedrys L. Trifolium pratense L. Tussilago farfara L. Ulmus rubra Muhl Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC Urtica dioica L. Aerial components Urtica dioica L. Rhizome and Root Urtica urens L. Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton Vaccinium myrtillus L. Valeriana officinalis L. Viburnum opulus L. Viburnum prunifolium L. Vitex agnus-castus L. Withania somnifera L. Dunal Zingiber officinale Roscoe thesaurus of Botanical Microscopy Terminology References and Bibliography Index

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This disconnection between the biosystem in which the plant is grown and those involved in harvesting or Figure 4 Harvesting the ayurvedic herb brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) at Shastry’s Estate, Hosagunda, in the Shivmoga district of Karnataka in southern India. indb 41 10/28/10 5:11:06 PM xlii American Herbal Pharmacopoeia: Botanical Pharmacognosy — Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines dispensing a medicine makes the task of ensuring identity, purity, and quality more difficult—sometimes impossible.

15 Pharmacognosy—A Shift to “Grind and Find” . . . . 19 Botanical Microscopy—Pharmacy’s Unique Contribution to Science . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Microscopic Sleuthing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Specificity of Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Quality Assurance of Herbal Ingredients . . . . . . 24 Botanical Pharmacognosy—A Phoenix Rising from the Ashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 References and Bibliography .

Source material (plant part) 6. Application in pharmacy Flückiger (1828–1894) Pharmacognosy—“The simultaneous application of various scientific disciplines with the object of acquiring a knowledge of drugs from every point of view” Hanbury (1825–1875) “The study of drugs must not be limited only to the morphological study, but it must follow the history, geographical origin, place of origin and commercial varieties, the characteristics and chemical composition” (De Pasquale 1984; Ledermann and Hörmann 1999).

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