By Santosh Kulkarni, Prathima Agrawal

This booklet addresses the necessity to enhance TCP’s functionality inside of facts facilities by way of offering recommendations which are either functional and backward appropriate with general TCP models. The authors method this problem first by way of deriving an analytical version for TCP’s functionality less than common facts middle workload site visitors. They then speak about a few suggestions which are designed to enhance TCP functionality by way of both proactively detecting community congestion via probabilistic retransmission or by means of keeping off timeout penalty via dynamic resizing of TCP segments. Experimental effects exhibit that every of thoughts mentioned outperforms ordinary TCP within a knowledge middle.

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Additional info for Analysis of TCP Performance in Data Center Networks (SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering)

Sample text

Our goal in this chapter is to not only provide the necessary background for the following chapters, but to also help readers working with TCP to gain a better understanding of the protocol. We note that TCP is a highly dynamic protocol, especially when the details of its implementations are considered. Many developers independently add non-standard modifications and enhancements to standard implementations of TCP. 4 Congestion Control 29 Fig. 5 Evolution of TCP’s congestion window due to the complexity of the protocol and some ambiguity in its specification, many developers allow themselves the freedom to deviate from the standard behavior to provide simplicity or inter-operability with other implementations of TCP.

21 gives us an expression to compute the throughput of Incast traffic when all the composite flows are in congestion avoidance phase and receive only loss indicating events that are of type TD. In this equation, we can approximate j, the mean number of flows experiencing a loss in a round, with the expression pprc . Since j must be no more than n, we have j = min n, pr pc . 3 Timeout Loss Indications In this subsection we model the throughput of cumulative flow for loss indications that are of type “time out” (TO).

Since TCP’s rwnd field is limited to 16 bits in length, it allows for a maximum possible size of 65,535 bytes. 3 illustrates the concept of the sliding window. In this simple example, the sliding window spans over four bytes of the data stream. The sequence numbers within the sender’s window represent the bytes sent but as yet not acknowledged. All sequence numbers to the left of the sliding window are bytes that were transmitted and also acknowledged; sequence numbers to the right of the sliding window are bytes that are yet to be transmitted.

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