By Robert Liddiard

Замки одинадцатого и двенадцатого веков остаются одними из самых видимых символов англо-нормандского мира. Данный сборник впервые объединяет некоторые из наиболее значимых статей в исследованиях замков, при участии специалистов в области истории, археологии и исторических сооружений. Замки остаются спорной темой для научных дебатов, и здесь равный вес придается основополагающим статьям, которые определили изучение предмета, одновременно подчеркивая новые подходы к крепостям англо-нормандской аристократии. Исследования в данной книге следуют в диапазоне от обсуждений жилой и военной роли замка в архитектурной символике до королевского отношения к фортификации баронов. В результате исследование, которое предлагает углубленный анализ строительства замков в одиннадцатом и двенадцатом веках, также затрагивает место англо-нормандских замков в их более широком социальном, архитектурно-политическом контексте.

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The contractors, in turn, needed to pay the tradesmen who provided them with the raw materials and they needed to pay the men and women plying shears, needles and thread. The exigencies of government contracts in the later seventeenth century demanded mercantile and social acuity in equal measure. Thomas Beckford sustained and expanded his place as a clothing supplier with a full portion of both traits. 33 Thomas Beckford culminated his business life by becoming a Sheriff of the City of London; he was by this time Sir Thomas.

3 Bill for large order of slops bought from John Baker, 1780 Lennox-Boyd Collection, Courtesy of the Honourable Christopher Lennox did some more junior officers; both ranks showed considerable acuity where profits in regimental business were concerned. The reputation of officers, particularly captains, was notorious during the Tudor and early Stuart period when a routine larceny was practised once the regiments were away from close scrutiny. Funds for pay, arms, equipment and clothing found their way into officers' pockets; the rank and file were often left in desperate straits, ragged and hungry.

Pepys displayed a disdain for corrupt officials; however, when there were no official issues immediately under consideration he saw no harm in accepting gifts from suppliers such as Beckford. Pepys recorded several encounters of this nature, the first in February of 1668. At the office all the morning to get a litde business done . . Hence comes to me young Captain Beckford the slopseller, and here presents me with a litde purse with gold in it, it being, as he told me, for his present [to me] at the end of the last year.

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